Airbus A400M Atlas

As of July 2012 the A400M is undergoing flight testing. Orders totalled 174 aircraft from eight nations as of July 2011. Airbus Military is expected to deliver the first aircraft in early 2013.

Top 5 Important Pictures That Shaped America

On July 20, 1969, the United States Apollo 11 space flight landed on the moon. It was the third lunar mission of NASA’s Apollo program and the vessel was crewed by Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin Jr.

Nokia Lumia 900 review

The Nokia Lumia 900 is a good-looking phone that boasts a bright 4.3in screen that shows off the software’s distinctive live tiles

Samsung Galaxy Note 2 release rumoured for August 30th

Further blurring the lines between smartphones and tablets, Samsung is rumoured to be preparing a Samsung Galaxy Note 2 release for IFA 2012

Addis Ababa’s Future National Stadium And Sports Village In Ethiopia

Entertainment is an essential part of our lives; without entertainment, sports or games, our lives would be like a barren land.

Minggu, 22 Juli 2012

Airbus A400M Atlas ~ Fourtriangle

As of July 2012 the A400M is undergoing flight testing. Orders totalled 174 aircraft from eight nations as of July 2011. Airbus Military is expected to deliver the first aircraft in early 2013. The Airbus A400M Atlas,is a multi-national four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It was designed by Airbus Military as a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities.The aircraft's maiden flight, originally planned for 2008, took place on 11 December 2009 in Seville, Spain.

As of July 2012 the A400M is undergoing flight testing. Orders totalled 174 aircraft from eight nations as of July 2011.Airbus Military is expected to deliver the first aircraft in early 2013.



The project began as the Future International Military Airlifter (FIMA) group, set up in 1982 by Aérospatiale, British Aerospace (BAe), Lockheed, and Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) to develop a replacement for the C-130 Hercules and Transall C-160.Varying requirements and the complications of international politics caused slow progress. In 1989 Lockheed left the grouping and went on to develop an upgraded Hercules, the C-130J Super Hercules. With the addition of Alenia of Italy and CASA of Spain the FIMA group became Euroflag.

The A400M is positioned as an intermediate size between the Lockheed C-130, and the Boeing C-17. Originally the SNECMA M138 turboprop (based on the M88 core) was selected to power the A400M. Airbus Military issued a new request for proposal (RFP) in April 2002, after which Pratt & Whitney Canada with the PW180 and Europrop International answered; the latter was a new design. Airbus Military preferred the PWC engine, but political interference resulted in the selection of the Europrop TP400-D6 in May 2003.

The partner nations – France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium, and Luxembourg – signed an agreement in May 2003 to buy 212 aircraft. These nations decided to charge the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR) with the management of the acquisition of the A400M.

Following the withdrawal of Italy and revision of procurement totals the revised requirement was for 180 aircraft, with first flight in 2008 and first delivery in 2009. On 28 April 2005, South Africa joined the partnership programme with the state-owned Denel Saab Aerostructures receiving a contract for fuselage components.

Into production

The A400M assembly at the Seville plant of EADS Spain started in the first quarter of 2007. Airbus plans to manufacture thirty aircraft per year.The major assemblies arrive by Airbus Beluga transporters. The four Europrop TP400-D6 flight test engines were delivered in late February 2008 for the first A400M.Static structural testing of a A400M test airframe began on 12 March 2008 in Spain.

The first flight, originally scheduled for the first quarter of 2008, was postponed due to program delays, schedule adjustments and financial pressures. EADS announced in early January 2008 that continued development problems with the engines had resulted in a delay to the second quarter of 2008 before the first engine test flights on a C-130 testbed aircraft. The first flight of the aircraft, previously scheduled for July 2008, had again been postponed. Civil certification under European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) CS-25 will be followed later by certification for military purposes. The A400M was "rolled out" in Seville on 26 June 2008 at an event presided by King Juan Carlos I of Spain.On 12 January 2011, serial production of the A400M for its first customers started.

Development problems

On 9 January 2009, EADS announced that the first delivery has been postponed until at least 2012. EADS also indicated that it wanted to renegotiate "certain technical characteristics" of the aircraft.EADS has long maintained the first deliveries would begin three years after the A400M's first flight. The German newspaper Financial Times Deutschland has closely followed the A400M program and reported on 12 January 2009 that the aircraft is overweight by 12 tons and may not be able to achieve a critical performance requirement, the ability to airlift 32 tons. Sources told FTD at the time that the aircraft could only lift 29 tons, which is insufficient to carry a modern armored infantry fighting vehicle (like the Puma).The FTD report prompted the chief of the German Air Force to say, "That is a disastrous development," and could delay deliveries to the Luftwaffe until 2014.The Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the Luftwaffe is delayed at least until 2017. This leads the political planning to potential alternatives in the shape of a higher integration of European airlift capabilities.The OCCAR reminded the participating countries that they can terminate the contract before 31 March 2009.

On 29 March 2009, Airbus CEO Thomas Enders told Der Spiegel magazine that the program may need to be abandoned without changes.Then on 3 April 2009 the South African Air Force announced that it would start considering alternatives to the A400M due to postponed production and increased cost.On 5 November 2009, South Africa announced it was cancelling the order citing increased cost and delivery delays.On 12 June, The New York Times reported that Germany and France have delayed the decision whether or not to cancel their orders for another six months, while the UK still plans to decide at the end of June. The NYT also quotes a report to the French Senate from February 2009, according to which "the A400M is €5 billion over budget, 3 to 4 years behind schedule, [...] aerospace experts estimate it is also costing Airbus between €1 billion and €1.5 billion a year."

The shortage of military transports caused by the A400M delay forced the UK to lease, and subsequently purchase, six C-17s. France and Germany have also been considering other planes, as all three countries need to support their operations in Afghanistan.The ADS Group has warned that shifting the British orders to American aircraft for the short term budget savings would cost much more over time in missed civil and military aerospace business, because they say that the technologies used in the A400M would be a bridge to the next generation of civilian aircraft.In June 2009, Lockheed Martin said that both United Kingdom and France had asked for technical details on the C-130J as an alternative to the A400M.

Airbus acknowledged in 2009 that the program is expected to lose at least €2.4 billion and cannot break even without sales outside NATO countries.A PricewaterhouseCoopers audit of the program projected that it would run €11.2 billion over budget unless corrective measures were taken, which would result in an overrun of only €7.6 billion.On 24 July 2009, the seven European nations announced that they would continue with the A400M program, and form a joint procurement agency to renegotiate the contract with EADS.The ministers of the seven European launch customers were supposed to meet 15 October 2009 in Germany to approve a new timetable, configuration and financial terms for the A400M airlifter.On 14 October 2009, French Ministry of Defense spokesman Laurent Teisseire, announced this meeting had been postponed.

On 9 December 2009, the Financial Times reported that Airbus has asked for an additional €5 billion subsidy to complete the project.On 5 January 2010, Airbus repeated that the A400M program may be scrapped, costing Airbus €5.7 billion unless €5.3 billion was added by partner governments.On 11 January 2010, Tom Enders, Airbus chief executive, stated that he was prepared to cancel production of the A400M if European governments did not provide more funding. Delays to the A400M project had already increased its budget by 25%.On 5 November 2010, Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain and Turkey finalised the contract and agreed to lend Airbus Military €1.5 billion. The program is at least three years behind schedule. The deal, however, meant also that the UK reduced its order from 25 to 22 aircraft and Germany from 60 to 53, decreasing the total order from 180 to 170.

Flight testing

Before the first flight, the company obtained the required hours of airborne test time on the engines using a C-130 testbed aircraft.The first flight of the C-130 testbed occurred on 17 December 2008.The A400M's maiden flight was carried out from Seville on 11 December 2009.The first A400M had flown 39 hours of test flights as of 9 March 2010.The second test aircraft's engines were tested on 18 March 2010 prior to it beginning test flights.The second A400M completed its first flight on 8 April 2010.The third A400M took to the air in July 2010. With this flight the three A400Ms have taken more than 100 flights, totaling 400 hours.

In July 2010, the A400M passed a key test: ultimate-load testing of the wing.On 28 October 2010, Airbus Military announced that it was about to start refuelling and air-drop tests.By late October 2010 the A400M had flown 672 hours of the 2,700 hours expected to reach certification. Cold weather testing is to be performed in either Canada or Sweden.In November 2010, the first paratroop jumps were performed from the A400M.In December 2010 the A400M fleet's flight time has risen to 965 hours.A400M number four joined the test fleet with its first flight of over five hours on 20 December 2010.

Winter tests were done in Kiruna, Sweden during February 2011.By April 2011 a total of 1,400 flight hours over 450 flights had been achieved.In May 2011 the A400M's EPI TP400-D6 engine received certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).In May 2011, the A400M fleet had totaled 1,600 hours over 500 flights; by September 2011, the total increased to 2,100 hours and 684 flights.

Due to a problem with the gearbox the A400M did not fly demonstrations at the 2011 Paris Air Show. It was shown on static display insteadBy October 2011, the total flight hours had reached 2,380 over 784 flights. A minor problem that occurred during wet landing test led to reconstruction of parts of the main landing gear door.

High altitude start and landing tests were performed at La Paz at 4,061.5 m (13,325 ft) and Cochabamba at 2,548 m (8,360 feet) in Bolivia in March 2012.


The Airbus A400M will increase the airlift capacity and range compared with the aircraft it was originally set to replace, the older versions of the Hercules and Transall. Cargo capacity is expected to double over existing aircraft, both in payload and volume, and range is increased substantially as well. The cargo box is 17.71 m long excluding ramp, 4.00 m wide, and 3.85 m high (or 4.00 m aft of the wing).and the ramp is 5.40 m long.

The A400M will operate in many configurations including cargo transport, troop transport, Medical evacuation, aerial refuelling, and electronic surveillance. The aircraft is intended for use on short, soft landing strips and for long-range, cargo transport flights.

It features a fly-by-wire flight control system with sidestick controllers and flight envelope protection. Like other Airbus aircraft, the A400M will have a full glass cockpit (all information accessed through large colour screens) and as such will represent a technological leap compared to the older C-130s and C-160s that many countries now operate.

The A400M's wings are primarily carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The eight-bladed Scimitar propeller is also made from a woven composite material. The aircraft is powered by four Europrop TP400-D6 engines rated at 8,250 kW (11,000 hp) each.The TP400-D6 engine is to be the most powerful turboprop engine in the West to enter operational use.One of the few propeller powered aircraft with swept wings, the turboprops provide an efficient cruise speed of 780 km/h (480 mph) which falls between the C-130 and the jet-powered C-17.

The pair of propellers on each wing of the A400M turn in opposite directions, with the tips of the propellers advancing from above towards the midpoint between the two engines. This is in contrast to the overwhelming majority of multi-engine propeller driven aircraft where all propellers on the same wing turn in the same direction. The counter-rotation is achieved by the use of a gearbox fitted to two of the engines, and only the propeller turns the opposite direction; all four engines are identical and turn in the same direction which eliminates the need to have two different "handed" engines on stock for the same aircraft, which simplifies maintenance and supply costs. This configuration, dubbed DBE (Down Between Engines), allows the aircraft to produce more lift and lessens the torque and prop wash on each wing. It also reduces yaw in the event of an outboard engine failure.

EADS and Thales will provide the new Multi-Colour Infrared Alerting Sensor (MIRAS) missile warning sensor for the A400M.

Operational history


South Africa

In December 2004, South Africa announced it would purchase eight A400Ms at a cost of approximately €837 million, with the nation joining the Airbus Military team as an industrial partner. Deliveries were expected from 2010 to 2012.In 2009, South Africa cancelled all eight aircraft, citing increasing costs. On 29 November 2011 Airbus Military reached an agreement to refund pre-delivery payments worth €837 million to Armscor.


Airbus Military made a bid in 2006 to supply Canada with the A400M to meet a tender request for 17 new tactical airlifters to replace their old C-130E models.The Canadians ordered four C-17 Globemaster IIIs and 17 C-130J Super Hercules instead.


In July 2005, the Chilean Air Force signed a Memorandum of understanding for three aircraft,but no order has been placed.

In December 2005, the Royal Malaysian Air Force ordered four A400Ms to supplement its fleet of Lockheed C-130 Hercules.

In 2009 the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command requested information on the A400M and the company responded with a proposal for 118 A400Ms.

In June 2010, EADS suggested a possibility that the Royal Australian Air Force might consider buying the A400M.


Data from Airbus Military specifications

General characteristics

Crew: 3 or 4 (2 pilots, 3rd optional, 1 loadmaster)
Capacity: 37,000 kg (81,600 lb)
116 fully equipped troops / paratroops,
up to 66 stretchers accompanied by 25 medical personnel
Length: 45.1 m (148 ft 0 in)
Wingspan: 42.4 m (139 ft 1 in)
Height: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
Empty weight: 76,500 kg (168,654 lb) ; operating weight[84]
Max takeoff weight: 141,000 kg (310,852 lb)
Fuel capacity: 50,500 kg (111,330 lb) internal fuel
Max landing weight: 122,000 kg (268,963 lb)
Powerplant: 4 × Europrop TP400-D6 turboprop, 8,250 kW (11,060 hp) each
Propellers: 8-bladed, 5.3 m (17 ft 5 in) diameter


Cruising speed: 780 km/h (485 mph; 421 kn) (Mach 0.68-0.72)
Initial cruise altitude: at MTOW: 9,000 m (29,000 ft)
Range: 3,298 km (2,049 mi; 1,781 nmi) at max payload (long range cruise speed; reserves as per MIL-C-5011A)
Range at 30-tonne payload: 4,540 km (2,450 nmi)


Top 5 Important Pictures That Shaped America ~ Fourtriangle

5. Migrant Mother

After the outbreak of World War I, the United States pursued a policy of non-intervention, avoiding conflict while trying to broker peace. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, “America is too proud to fight” and demanded that Germany end the attacks on passenger ships. In January of 1917, Britain’s secret Royal Navy cryptanalytic group, Room 40, intercepted a German coded message to Mexico, which suggested that Mexico should declare war on the United States with the help of Germany. U.S. 

President Woodrow Wilson released the information to the public to gain support for the war. He realized that a U.S. conflict was imminent, after German submarines sank numerous U.S. merchant ships.

The United States officially entered World War I on April 6, 1917. After the end of the war, the U.S. moved into the Golden Age of media, with the establishment of public radio and the first major broadcast networks. However, by the end of the 1920s, the U.S entered the Great Depression, which was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. The Great 

Depression originated in the United States, starting with the plummet of the stock market. The depression had devastating effects in virtually every country. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged and unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%. 

Tensions quickly elevated in major settlements around the United States and this era in U.S. history is full of dark and depressing pictures.

The Photograph

Dorothea Lange was an influential American documentary photographer, best known for her Depression-era work. Lange’s photographs humanized the tragic consequences of the Great Depression and profoundly influenced the development of documentary photography. Her best known images were taken in 1936, when she captured a set of pictures that would become known as the Migrant Mother collection. In March 1936, after picking beets in the Imperial Valley, Florence Owens Thompson and her family suffered car trouble near the city of Nipomo, California. Florence Thompson’s husband and sons took the car’s radiator to be fixed and she set up a temporary camp with her small children.

While the family waited for the men to return, Dorothea Lange approached Florence and took a collection of famous images. One of the pictures shows a close-up portrait of Florence Owens Thompson and her children. The image was published in newspapers all over the United States and has since reached near mythical status, symbolizing, if not defining, this entire era in U.S. history. It was not until the late 1970s that Thompson’s identity was discovered. She was quoted as saying “I wish she hadn’t taken my picture. I can’t get a penny out of it. She didn’t ask my name. She said she wouldn’t sell the pictures. She said she’d send me a copy. She never did.” As one of the most powerful photographs of the Depression era, Migrant Mother reflects the victims who suffered the most in the United States during the 1930s.

4. American Soldiers Storm Normandy

In 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland marking the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, the Selective Service Act was passed in the United States. The law required that all men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with the U.S. draft board. On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy conducted a surprise attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor. The next day, the U.S. declared war on Japan resulting in the entry into World War II. 

Over the next four years of war, 418,000 U.S. soldiers were killed in battle. On January 16, 1945, the Red Army breached the German front and entered the city of Berlin. May 8, 1945, is officially Victory in Europe Day, when the Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. August 14, 1945, is Victory over Japan Day in the United States.

After the end of the Second World War, the Korean Peninsula, which was ruled by Japan since 1910, was divided along the 38th Parallel, with U.S. troops occupying the southern portion and Soviet troops occupying the north. In 1948, government officials failed to hold free elections on the Korean Peninsula and this deepened the division between the two sides. The North established a Communist government and the 38th Parallel became a political border between the two Koreas. On June 25, 1950, the conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Korea. This event marked the beginning of the Korean War (1950-1953). The U.S. came to the aid of South Korea, while China and Russia joined the communist north. The conflict ended after the threat of nuclear war was made and the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) was formed, which is a 2.5 mile (4.0 km) wide buffer zone between the two Koreas. Today, the DMZ is the most heavily militarized border in the world.

The Photograph

A number of famous American photographs were taken during the Second World War. The three most referenced images include the Conference of the Big Three at Yalta, which shows Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Premier Josef Stalin in February of 1945. The Flag Raising on Iwo Jima is probably the most well known American photo in existence, while the picture taken of a happy couple celebrating the end of the war with a kiss in New York City is iconic. For this article, I have selected a war photo that was captured on June 6, 1944 (D-Day), as American soldiers swarmed the beaches of Normandy.

The Normandy landing was the largest amphibious invasion of all time, with over 160,000 Allied troops entering France on June 6, 1944. This famous image shows American soldiers as they leave the ramp of a Coast Guard landing boat and enter the frigid waters off Normandy. At the time that the picture was taken, these men were under heavy Nazi machine gun fire. They were forced to travel through the heavy tides and deep water holes, searching for solid land. Looking at this image, you can feel the wetness in the air and smell the gunpowder that looms over the battlefield. This photograph was taken under the intense pressures of war and gives a historic glimpse into the conflict.

3. Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination

In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren made a historic ruling. He granted the children of Oliver Brown the right to attend an all white school, striking down the “separate but equal” concept that was prevalent in the United States. Warren ruled that segregation violated the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The decision led to the African-American Civil Rights Movement. During this time, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between activists and police. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 granted equal access to public accommodations for everyone regardless of race, religion or national origin. The enactment of the law resulted from numerous demonstrations designed to show the hardships of segregation in America.

The United States also experienced a youth movement during the early 1960s, known as the hippy subculture. These people practiced the principle of free love, harmony with nature, communal living, world peace, artistic expression, and in many cases widespread experimentation with mind-altering substances. During this time, music grew in America like never before and Beatle Mania expanded. 

Bob Dylan emerged as a lyricist. Many of the pubic demonstrations included speeches in strong opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War was a conflict that lasted from 1955-1975. The war was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the U.S. and other anti-communist nations. The conflict ended with the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975, and the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

The Photograph

Serious Steps is an award-winning image that was captured in 1962. It shows President John F. 

Kennedy and former Commander-in-chief Dwight D. Eisenhower walking together. Two notable pictures that document the Vietnam War are titled Tank Commander and Dreams of Better Times, each of these images was awarded the Pulitzer or World Press honor. On May 4, 1970, four students were killed by the Ohio National Guard in the Kent State shooting. A photograph showing the lifeless body of 20-year-old Jeffrey Miller won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize. Martin Luther King Jr. was the most famous leader of the American civil rights movement.

In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was staying in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, which is located in Memphis, Tennessee. While standing on the balcony of the hotel, King was fatally shot and wounded from a single gunshot to the head. After the shooting, Martin’s friends quickly rushed to his side and desperately tried to stop the bleeding. They were also pointing in the direction of an old run down hotel across the street. The moment was captured by photographer James Louw. The image has since become one of the most famous in U.S. history. It shows the fatally wounded Martin Luther King Jr. laying at the feet of his friends, while they yell for help. It is a descriptive photograph that shows what the scene was like when King was assassinated. You can see his leg propelled up against the balcony bars, with large pools of blood forming. In 1986, Martin Luther King Day was established as a United States holiday, only the fourth Federal holiday to honor an individual, with the other three being in honor of Jesus of Nazareth, George Washington, and Christopher Columbus.

2. America Walks on the Moon

On July 20, 1969, the United States Apollo 11 space flight landed on the moon. It was the third lunar mission of NASA’s Apollo program and the vessel was crewed by Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin Jr. The event was a historic moment in United States history and represented a victory for the U.S. in the Cold War Space Race. By the early 1970s, the cost of the Vietnam War and the NASA space program increased domestic spending and accelerated inflation in America. During this time, the U.S. began to amass a federal deficit for the first time in the 20th century. In 1971, the U.S. government, under Richard Nixon, printed an excess of American currency in order to pay for the nation’s military spending and private investments. These policies shifted the United States economic status and ultimately led to an event known as the Nixon Shock. On August 9, 1974, Richard Nixon resigned as the President of the United States, becoming the first and only U.S. President to step down.

The Photograph

A number of famous photographs were taken during the Apollo 11 space mission. The pictures of the American flag on the moon and of the first human footprint are lasting. I was going to include the photograph of the first step on the moon, but Armstrong’s leap was not documented.  There is a famous picture of Buzz Aldrin jumping from the Command Module to the moon.  The photograph that I have selected was taken from the Apollo 15 mission, which was the fourth flight to land on the moon.  The picture gives a panorama view of the crew’s space vehicles and the American flag.  In the picture, Lunar Module Pilot James Irwin can be seen giving a salute to the people of the world.  It is a revealing photograph and shows the technical equipment used to travel to the moon and back. If you look closely, the moon’s surface can be viewed with human footprints scattered around. This image represents an incredible achievement in the history of the United States.

1. September 11, 2001

In 1975, Bill Gates founded Microsoft and the U.S. was launched into the age of technological advancement. In 1977, the first home personal computer, Commodore PET, was released for retail sale. By the 1990s, the Internet was beginning to take hold. The basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible have existed since the 1960s, but the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. The estimated population of Internet users is 1.97 billion as of July 2010.

On August 2, 1990, the Gulf War began in the Middle East. The conflict was waged by a U.N. authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations, led by the U.S. and United Kingdom, against Iraq. 

On September 11, 2001, the United States faced the biggest terrorist attack in history when 19 individuals hijacked four U.S. planes and crashed them into the World Trade Centers, the Pentagon, and a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania killing nearly 3,000 people and injuring over 6,000.

On September 11, all civilian air traffic was suspended for three days. It was the first time that an unplanned air flight suspension had occurred in the United States. In response to the terrorist attacks, the U.S. and U.K. declared war on Afghanistan and invaded the country on October 7, 2001. The United States government reported that the reason for invading Afghanistan was to find Osama bin Laden and to destroy the organization of Al-Qaeda. As of 2011, the United States is still at war in Afghanistan with no current leads regarding the location of Osama bin Laden. On March 20, 2003, the United States and United Kingdom invaded and occupied the country of Iraq, starting the Iraq War. Recently, top U.S. military commanders in Iraq have said they believe all U.S. troops will be out of the country by the end of 2011. The two separate wars have become a controversial subject in the United States, especially since the economic status of the nation has greatly declined since 2008.

The Photograph

The most famous image to emerge from the September 11 attacks is titled Ground Zero Spirit and shows firefighters raising the American flag against a tangle of iron and debris at Ground Zero in New York City. For this article I have selected a picture that was taken by Bill Biggart. Bill Biggart was the only working photojournalist to die on 9/11. After the World Trade Centers were attacked, Bill Biggart traveled to the buildings to document the event. He had three separate cameras, one being digital. As the South Tower collapsed, Biggart snapped a famous collection of four photographs. He was killed when the North Tower came down. However, his camera bag was miraculously discovered in the wreckage. Most of his pictures were unsalvageable, but the flash card in the digital camera was saved and some photographs were retrieved. This image shows one of Biggart’s pictures as the South Tower collapsed to the ground. You can see the burning North Tower still standing, a building that would later fall, killing Biggart. In the picture, look at the destruction and large pieces of debris traveling with the slide. Bill Biggart will always be remembered for his bravery.

Sabtu, 21 Juli 2012

Top 5 Reasons Why People Hate Top 10 Lists ~ Fourtriangle

5. Clutter the Internet

Critics might say that some lists are a waste of bandwidth because they serve little or no value. Readers who spend enough time with these lists (most will have left the list immediately) will all wonder the same thing: what was the writer thinking?
Perhaps the writer of The Top 10 Worst Shoes To Wear And Step In Dog Poop had an urgent message they felt they needed to share, or maybe it seemed funny at the time. However, most readers probably want their 5 minutes (and their appetites) back.

4. Unoriginal

Some readers might argue that lists such as Top 10 Sidekicks or Top 10 Most Expensive Desserts have been done so many times you already know what will be on the list. The two lists mentioned are common topics and some of the list items might be the same, but at least the writing is original- and hopefully the images or video footage illustrating each point is different.

3. Controversy For It’s Own Sake

Some lists are so controversial that readers might question whether the list was written for no other reason than to start an argument. The Top 10 Arguments That Can’t Be Won list is so controversial that the arguments in the comments have been going on for two years. Last July (2010) Jim commented that it’s “getting close to two years on this thread now and people are still pretending there is not two sides to each debate… It is amazing how many here really think they have “proven” something or presented a valid argument instead of an amusing rant… This has been fun.”

2. False information

Sometimes readers will point out incorrect information in a list. Usually this is an innocent error on the writer’s (or editor’s) part. However, there are also lists out there on the Internet where the writer is intentionally spreading false information in order to sensationalize the topic.

1. Supports Stereotypes

I think the biggest reason to hate a top 10 list is when it supports stereotypes and doesn’t give any insight into new ideas. Sometimes the stereotyping isn’t blatant, but is implied throughout the whole list.

GTA 5 release date, trailer, cheats, news & rumours ~ Fourtriangle

 GTA 5 release date, trailer, cheats, news and rumours all rolled up into one: What's in store for the upcoming Xbox 360, Sony PS3 & PC title?

Grand Theft Auto 5 news
Update: According to fresh rumours, we could be seeing a GTA 5 release date announcement at the Gamescom trade fair, which is held annually in Cologne, Germany.

The rumour mill went wild after a Gamescom 2012 promotional video, which was released online earlier this month, showed a brief clip of the game.

The game's publisher, Take-Two, is also included on the list of exhibitors, so the chances of a big announcement being made is extremely likely, although never gaurenteed.

Previously, developer Rockstar offered a tantalising insight into Grand Theft Auto 5 with a spokesperson for the company telling eager gamers more is to come "in a few months time."
That was a few months ago.
"Right now, we are very hard at work on the game and are excited as well to show and tell you more as development progresses," an unnamed representative for the company said.

"Expect that we'll be talking much more about GTAV starting at some point in a few months' time."

What we do know for certain is that GTA 5 will be arriving on the PS3 after Sony’s PlayStation 3 site put up an official GTA V web page.

Elsewhere the map for GTA V has been 'leaked' via a person claiming to be an employee of Rockstar who was leaving in two weeks, the map shows Los Santos along with desirable Vinewood area known for being a fictional interpretation of Hollywood.

GTA 5: Screenshots

Update: Earlier this month, Rockstar treated GTA fans to an early glimpse of its upcoming title with the release of two new screenshots.

The pics show a man sitting alone on a pier, admiring the beautiful scenery around him, while another is of a helicopter hovering above the city (San Andreas).

Games blogs went crazy over the snaps, with many fanboys taking to online forums to discuss the much-mooted title. Pics below. Enjoy.

Grand Theft Auto 5 release date

As yet there has been no official confirmation on a Grand Theft Auto 5 release date however analysts believe that Rockstar is following a 6 month schedule which will see an E3 2012 launch.

IndustryGamers spoke to financial analysts who believe this schedule will result in a release before the end of 2012.
"We believe Rockstar Games is modeling a 4 to 6 month marketing window for their upcoming GTA Vrelease, suggesting a Summer '12 launch period,"

If Zavvi is to be believed then the GTA 5 release date will be much later with the site stating an exact release date of 23 November which would put it in line to be Christmas no.1.
With the gaming world looking toward Rockstar for a confirmed GTA V UK release date, a developer on the title has suggested the game's release has been pushed back from a previously tipped October arrival to a new December launch.

Grand Theft Auto 5 trailer


Being the only official source of information the Grand Theft Auto 5 trailer was useful in establishing a number of facts including the location and the characters that would be featuring in the game.

Based on Los Angeles the main location of the game will be centred around the fictional city of Los Santos, first seen in Grand Theft Auto 4.

Los Santos will be situated within San Andreas and if the trailer is anything to go by you’ll be able to explore much of the surrounding countryside as well.
It’s believed that the game will feature many of the same driveable vehicles as has been prominent in all Grand Theft Auto games, again if the trailer is to be an indicator it would appear as though aircraft will also be featuring.

Grand Theft Auto 5 rumours


Probably the biggest GTA 5 rumour at the moment is that the game’s lead character will be played by actor Ned Luke after the game appeared on hisIMDB profile (it has since been removed).

It’s believed that he will be playing the lead character of the game whose name is rumoured to be Albert De Silva.
There had been reports that the character was Ray Liotta reprising his role as an older Tommy Vercetti, however fansites such as have agreed in their prediction of Luke as the actor involved.
CVG believes that we’ll also see the return of CJ, the main protagonist from GTA: San Andreas.
Of course while there is a likeness between CJ and the character in the trailer it’s far from solid proof so we’ll have to wait for E3 until we know for sure.

Grand Theft Auto multiplayer


According to several fan sites the game will come with a multiplayer mode, of course what that will be specifically is unclear.

Some have suggested that the game will take on board the lessons learned through Red Dead Redemption so will include a number of mini-games and with the trailer showing jet ski's and golfing you could find yourself racing around the bay in online races.


Grand Theft Auto cheats


Of course it wouldn’t be a GTA game if it didn’t have insane cheats and while it’s unlikely that they’ll ever be able to top those that were available for Vice City we’ll certainly keep our eyes peeled for the best to hit the web.

Grand Theft Auto history


Coming in as the fifth incarnation of the Grand Theft Auto franchise GTA V will potentially be set in the modern day, making it the second game to focus perhaps on more realism.
In contrast Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was set during the 80’s in a fictional recreation of Miami and featured everything from assault helicopters to porn studios.


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